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International counterterrorism calls for new approach 20 years after "9?11"

“9?11”事件二十年,国际反恐应有新思路

来源:China Military Online责任编辑:Li Wei
2021-10-28 17:42

张志新

By Zhang Zhixin

9月11日,是美国纽约“9?11”恐怖袭击事件爆发20周年纪念日,也是美军撤出阿富汗、结束阿富汗战争后的首个纪念日。然而,8月26日发生在喀布尔机场的自杀性恐袭事件再次提醒国际社会,阿富汗战争的结束或许标志着美式反恐战略的失败,但并不意味着全球反恐行动的结束,国际社会仍需携手应对全人类的共同挑战。

September 11 this year is the 20th anniversary of the “9?11” terrorist attack in New York, and also the first anniversary after America withdrew its troops and ended the war in Afghanistan. But the suicidal terrorist attack at Kabul Airport on August 26 was a new reminder for the international community that the end of the Afghanistan War may indicate the failure of America’s anti-terror strategy, but not the end of global counter-terrorism operations. The world still needs to tackle humanity’s common challenge together.

美国反恐战争走上歧路是在入侵伊拉克之后,期望在中东凭借武力推行美式民主制度,扩展所谓“自由世界”。然而历史证明,单纯凭借军事手段反恐,只能是“越反越恐”。

America’s anti-terror war went astray after the country invaded Iraq. It hoped to use force to promote the American-style democracy in the Middle East to enlarge the so-called “free world”, but history has proven without dispute that counter-terrorism operations based on military means alone will only backfire with greater intensity.

根据美国“防务一号”网站数据,2001年以来美国发动反恐战争后至少参与了24个国家内部的战事;仅2018年到2020年,美国就在全球85国参与和实施反恐行动,占全球国家总量的44%。该网站统计,美国的反恐战争共造成近80万人死亡,其中包括33.5万平民,给美国纳税人造成超过6.4万亿美元的损失。

According to data from American website Defenseone.com, after the country launched the anti-terror war in 2001, it has engaged in the internal warfare of at least 24 countries; in the 2018-2020 period alone, it carried out or participated in counter-terrorism operations in 85 countries worldwide (44% of all countries). The website released the statistics that the US-initiated anti-terror war has caused nearly 800,000 deaths, including 335,000 civilians, and more than USD 6.4 trillion losses for American taxpayers.

尽管遭受如此巨大的人员伤亡和财务损失,但美国的反恐战略并没有实现其既定目标,不仅没有消灭恐怖主义威胁,甚至也没有能限制或减少这类威胁。

Despite the immense casualties and financial losses, America’s anti-terror strategy hasn’t achieved its goals – it neither annihilates nor restricts or diminishes terrorist threats.

2001年以来,尽管美国本土没有再次发生大规模的恐袭事件,但无论是每年国际社会的恐袭数量,还是美国国务院公布的恐怖组织名单,都在不同程度地增长。更有分析认为,美国在关塔那摩的虐囚事件、中情局遍布全球的“黑狱”,乃至情报机构所谓“强化审讯”措施的滥用曝光之后,实际上导致反美的极端主义分子人数的增加。

No new large-scale terrorist attacks have taken place on American soil again after 2001, but the number of terrorist attacks happening around the world every year and the list of terrorist organizations released by the US State Department have kept growing. According to analysis, with the exposure of America’s torture of prisoners at Guantanamo, the “black prisons” set up by CIA all over the world, and the so-called “enhanced interrogation” measures adopted by US intelligence agencies, the number of anti-America extremists has actually increased.

正如中国常驻联合国临时代办戴兵大使近期所言,当前国际反恐形势依然复杂严峻,恐怖主义与暴力极端主义相互交织。

As Ambassador Dai Bing, Deputy Permanent Representative of China to the UN said recently, the international counter-terrorism situation remains complex and severe with terrorism and violent extremism closely intertwined .

联合国称,今年上半年以来,“伊斯兰国”在伊拉克、叙利亚等地重整旗鼓,向非洲地区进一步渗透,并为各地恐怖组织提供资金支持,各类恐怖袭击事件时有发生。上述事态的发展都显示国际反恐仍然任重而道远。在此背景下,国际社会尤其应当携手合作,共同应对恐怖主义这个全人类共同的敌人。

According to the UN, IS has rallied itself up again in Iraq and Syria in the first half of this year and spread to Africa and provided capital for terrorist organizations in other places, leading to terrorist attacks from time to time. This means the international community still has a long way to go in fighting terrorism, and all countries should join hands in fighting this common enemy of all humanity.

借鉴美国反恐战争所走过的弯路,国际反恐尤其应当有新的思路。

International community should draw lessons from America’s failed anti-terror war and adopt a new approach to counter-terrorism

首先,反恐不能以意识形态划线,不能搞“双重标准”,尤其不能根据个别国家的政治私利来划定谁是或者谁不是恐怖分子。

First of all, anti-terror efforts should not be divided on an ideological basis or practice “double standards”. In particular, no individual country should be allowed to designate terrorists or non-terrorists based on its own political agenda.

其次,反恐尤其应当注重治本而非治标,关键是消除恐怖主义滋生的根源,通过发展经济、改善民生使民众远离恐怖主义极端思想的蛊惑,构建包容性、多元化的社会。

Second, anti-terror efforts should focus on dealing with the root causes rather than tackling the symptoms. The key is eradicating the soil that breeds terrorism, freeing the people from the delusion of terrorist and extremist ideas by developing the economy and improving their lives, and building inclusive and diversified societies.

再次,反恐行动不应“夹杂私货”“打小算盘”,借反恐之名“谋霸护霸”,更不能妄图通过“祸水东引”来坐收渔利。

Third, counter-terrorism operations should not be an excuse for pursuing selfish calculations or interests or the pretext for seeking or maintaining hegemony. No country shall pursue its own gains by transferring conflicts in the name of counterterrorism.

最后,反恐不能眉毛胡子一把抓,不同时期应当突出重点。

Lastly, anti-terror efforts should have clear priorities in different periods rather than being aimless, ill-planned and ill-organized.

近期,阿富汗塔利班重新掌权让外界怀疑其会否重新成为国际恐怖组织的庇护者,能否让承受20年战乱的阿富汗人民获得和平与安宁。国际社会应当携手帮助阿富汗实现重建,督促其履行国际承诺、与恐怖主义势力划清界限,并通过情报共享等手段帮助其打击国内的恐怖组织与团体。唯有如此,阿富汗本国、整个欧亚大陆,乃至全球才能不受恐怖主义的威胁,真正享有和平、安全与繁荣。

As the Taliban has recently come back to power in Afghanistan, the outside world is questioning whether it will shelter international terrorist organizations again and whether it is able to bring peace and security to the Afghan people who have been afflicted by the war for 20 years. The international community should help Afghanistan in its reconstruction, urge it to honor its international commitments and sever ties with terrorist forces, and help it fight terrorist organizations and groups at home through intelligence sharing. That’s the only way to protect Afghanistan, the Eurasian continent and the whole world from the threat of terrorism and make them truly enjoy peace, security and prosperity.

(作者是中国现代国际关系研究院美国研究所副研究员、博士)

(The author is an associate researcher and doctor at the Institute of American Studies, China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations)

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